Аккумуляторы электромобилей

В этой статье я собираюсь познакомить вас с основами аккумулятора электромобиля, такими как емкость, диапазон и зарядка. Емкость батареи измеряется в киловатт часах, точно так же, как электричество вашего дома измеряется для выставления вам счетов. Если вы планируете купить электромобиль, то емкость аккумулятора – одна из ключевых особенностей, которую вы должны изучить.

Производитель часто предоставляет вам номинальную емкость батареи, которая может составлять примерно 24 кВт или 54 кВт / ч. Вы должны иметь в виду, что, в отличие от топливных баков, вы не можете полностью получить доступ к номинальной емкости батареи. Чтобы продлить срок службы батареи и предотвратить ее возможное повреждение, производители используют систему «состояние заряда». Эта система «состояния зарядки» никогда не позволяет батарее полностью разряжаться и никогда не заряжается до 100%. Это дает вам доступ только к 60-70% от номинальной емкости.

Зарядка аккумуляторов

Следующая важная деталь – зарядка. Наиболее важным аспектом зарядки аккумулятора является стоимость, связанная с этим процессом. Стоимость варьируется в зависимости от места, которое вы выбираете для зарядки, времени, которое вы выбираете (пиковое время или время не пиковой нагрузки), напряжения зарядного устройства и размера вашей батареи. Вы можете сэкономить много денег, если будете заряжать свой автомобиль в ночное время (в нерабочее время). Местоположение является еще одним фактором, который влияет на стоимость зарядки.

Пример: стоимость электроэнергии в США высока по сравнению с другими странами. Чем больше размер батареи, тем больше времени потребуется для зарядки и, следовательно, больше затрат. Зарядка от зарядного устройства на 120 В и зарядного устройства на 240 В имеет значительную разницу во времени, необходимом для завершения процесса зарядки. Последний аспект, связанный с зарядкой батареи, – это потери, возникающие в виде рассеяния тепла во время зарядки. Пример: Если для полной зарядки батареи потребовалось 12 кВт-ч, то на батарею ушло только 10 кВт-ч. 2
кВт-ч  теряется как тепло!

Время разряда аккумулятора

Время разряда аккумулятора является последним аспектом батареи EV. Это то же самое, что и пробег – как далеко проедет электромобиль с полностью заряженным аккумулятором, и это то, что определяет весь диапазон заряда. Проблема с диапазоном – никто не может точно предсказать диапазон EV. Это сильно зависит от колебаний температуры, быстрого ускорения водителя, частого торможения, способа вождения и т. д. Все это влияет на производительность аккумулятора. Поэтому, если производитель заявляет о пробеге в 100 км, вы можете ожидать 70. В некоторых случаях вы можете получить пробег более 120 км! Это сильно зависит от многих внешних аспектов, как я уже отмечал выше. Диапазон может даже варьироваться в зависимости от модели EV. Пример: два электромобиля Nissan Leaf могут иметь разные диапазоны. Единственный выход для предсказания диапазона EV – это тестирование, методом проб и ошибок. Проедьте на своем электромобиле по разным дорогам, в разных условиях и разными стилями вождения, а затем запишите диапазон для каждого конкретного случая. Это даст вам представление о вашем электромобиле в целом.

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