Немного теории об акустическе

Пространство автомобильного салона акустически не приспособлено для высококачественного звуковоспроизведения – объем салона чрезвычайно мал. Из этого обстоятельства следует несколько очевидных выводов:

1. Практически невозможно соблюсти основное условие для обеспечения стереофонического звучания – взаимное расположение слушателей и громкоговорителей акустической системы по вершинам равностороннего треугольника. Помимо разницы в интенсивности звучания возникает временной сдвиг между сигналами левого и правого каналов, что приводит к смещению кажущихся источников звука (КИЗ) относительно их истинного положения. Особенно заметен этот эффект для сигналов средних частот.

2. Трудно обеспечить необходимое удаление слушателя от громкоговорителей. А при работе в ближней зоне излучения громкоговоритель уже нельзя рассматривать как точечный источник, что приводит к специфическим интерференционным искажениям на средних частотах (на ВЧ этот эффект ослаблен из-за малого размера излучателей).

3. Благодаря малому объему салона на низких частотах возникает достаточно однородное звуковое поле (это справедливо с небольшой оговоркой, суть которой разъясняется ниже). Однако наличие в салоне неравномерно расположенных поглощающих и отражающих поверхностей (стекла, обивка, пассажиры) не позволяет уверенно прогнозировать его акустические свойства на средних и высоких частотах. К тому же эти поверхности обеспечивают различную степень отражения и поглощения в пределах частотного диапазона – мягкие сидения и обивка дверей эффективно поглощают низко- и среднечастотные колебания, а высокочастотные звуки прекрасно отражаются от стекла. Вследствие указанного АЧХ салона на средних и высших частотах имеет неравномерность, порой значительную, а характер неравномерности зависит от выбора точки замера.

Кроме этого, есть еще два аспекта, не столь очевидных, но связанных с малым объемом салона и его геометрией: локальные неравномерности в АЧХ, вызванные резонансными явлениями, и подъем АЧХ на низших частотах. Указанные факторы в совокупности и формируют передаточную характеристику салона.

Так, из-за наличия в салоне относительно параллельных поверхностей (боковые стенки, пол и потолок) создаются условия для возникновения стоячих волн. Практическое значение имеют только колебания на субгармониках и основной частоте, интенсивность остальных составляющих весьма мала. Реально из-за наличия препятствий в виде сидений и пассажиров большинство резонансов подавляется, а явно выражен только поперечный. Он проявляется на тех частотах, где ширина салона соответствует половине длины волны (для большинства легковых автомобилей – 120… 150 Гц). На слух это проявляется в виде неприятного гула и “бубнения”. В первом приближении можно считать, что частота поперечного резонанса равна Fr=Vs/2W, где Vs=340 м/с – скорость звука; W – ширина салона. Вредное влияние резонанса может быть снижено за счет применения мягкой облицовки дверей, но полностью подавить его возможно только путем коррекции АЧХ тракта. Так, в автомобиле автора (ВАЗ-2107) замена штатных гладких облицовок на мягкие велюровые уменьшила “горб” на АЧХ с 8 до 6 дБ, а частота резонанса за счет снижения добротности колебательной системы снизилась со 140 до 130 Гц.

Подъем АЧХ на низших частотах имеет аналогичное объяснение. Для сигналов тех частот, длина волны которых соизмерима с максимальным размером салона (как правило, его длиной), салон представляет собой эквивалент акустического ФНЧ второго порядка, АЧХ которого ниже частоты среза имеет подъем с крутизной около 12 дБ на октаву. В первом приближении (без учета поглощения в салоне и конечной жесткости панелей кузова) можно считать, что частота среза равна Fc= Vs/2Lmax (здесь Lmax – максимальный размер салона). На этой частоте подъем достигает 3 дБ, а ниже – на F&№60;Vs/4Lmax – он исчезает. Таким образом, подъем АЧХ салона в диапазоне слышимых частот составляет примерно 12… 18 дБ. Из-за того, что акустические свойства салона неидеальны, реальные цифры несколько отличаются от теории – для кузова “классика” частота Fc равна примерно 60 Гц, для “зубила” – 55 Гц и для кузовов “универсал” – 45…50 Гц. Очевидно, что звучание одних и тех же динамических головок в разных салонах будет совершенно различным.

Исходя из ранее рассмотренных факторов, выбор места в салоне для установки громкоговорителей приобретает первоочередное значение. Более того, выбор количества полос и частот раздела зависит от места их установки.

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